ACCIDENT SURVEYS AND STATISTICS - U.S. / - INTERNATIONAL / -OTHER ROAD USERS / PATTERNS OF USE / FACILITIES AND PLANNING / HELMETS / LAW / TECH / PHYSIOLOGY / ADVOCACY SOCIOLOGY & CULTURE

NOTE: A page like this should come with its own desalinization plant considering all the grains of salt that need to be taken with the inconclusive and generally stinky statistics presented here. Suffice to say that anyone heard to be drawing solid conclusions based on such surveys and studies as these is likely to be terribly wrong as well as deserving of a vigorous forehead slap.
SEE THE ENERGY AND TRANSPORT PAGE FOR STATISTICS, INFORMATION AND POLICY PAPERS NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO BICYCLING.

Search Robert Hurst's 'digital note pad'  THE INDUSTRIALIZED CYCLIST NOTE PAD  for juicy chunks of information related to transportation, energy, war, bicycling, Mayans, helicopters, jackups and Ku-Maloob-Zaap.

ACCIDENT SURVEYS AND STATISTICS - UNITED STATES

EVERY BICYCLIST COUNTS 2014 report from the League of American Bicyclists found 40% of cyclist fatalities the result of a hit-from-behind. 

KAPLAN'S SURVEY OF L.A.W. MEMBERS Viet-Nam War-era cycling survey, 1974. Note: this is on the website of John Allen. Or download pdf.

ADULT BICYCLISTS IN THE UNITED STATES - CHARACTERISTICS AND RIDING EXPERIENCE IN 1996 (pdf) William Moritz' survey of LAB members. An update of Kaplan with similar numbers. Are they good or bad? Depends on your perspective. 

MORITZ' INTERNET SURVEY OF BICYCLE COMMUTERS Another relatively robust survey from William Moritz, and very similar results. 

THE CROSS STUDY This study of 384 accidents that occurred in Santa Barbara in the early 1970s has been cited in support of all kinds of claims. Should it be? Note: only on the website of John Forester.

CROSS-FISHER '77 (pdf) Volume One of the landmark study prepared for the US Department of Transportation by Kenneth Cross and Gary Fisher. "A Study of Bicycle/Motor-Vehicle Accidents: Identification of Problem Types and Countermeasure Approaches," vol. 1, September 1977.

BICYCLE ACCIDENTS AND USAGE AMONG YOUNG ADULTS This 1976 survey showed relatively alarming accident numbers for young riders. 

CRASH TYPE MANUAL FOR CYCLISTS From the Federal Highway Administration, by Carol Tan, 1996.

NORTH CAROLINA BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN CRASH DATA TOOL. A database of all reported collisions in N.C. for ten years, includes age of victim, crash type, etc.

FHWA'S BIKE-PED PUBLICATION PAGE Facilities, education and more.

KEN KIFER'S 2001 BICYCLE SAFETY SURVEY A small survey of touring cyclists that seemed to corroborate larger surveys of experienced riders, but found strikingly bad news in the relative danger of cycling versus driving. Kifer's site does not seem to exist on the Web right now.

FLORIDA BICYCLIST AND PEDESTRIAN CRASH EXPOSURE (pdf) Based on 2002 phone survey.

IDAHO TRAFFIC CRASHES 2012 (pdf) Includes rudimentary information about bicycle crashes in the "Idaho Stop" state.

ON-ROAD BICYCLE FACILITIES AND BICYCLE CRASHES IN IOWA, 2007-2010 Abstract, July 2013, Accident Analysis and Prevention.

BICYCLE ACCIDENTS IN WASHINGTON STATE, 1988-1993 (pdf) A survey of police records by Ralph Wessels.

CALIFORNIA STATEWIDE SAFETY STUDY OF BICYCLES AND PEDESTRIANS ON FREEWAYS, EXPRESSWAYS, TOLL BRIDGES, AND TUNNELS 2001 report by Ferrara, San Jose State University.

MANNER AND FAULT IN BICYCLIST FATALITIES : ARIZONA 2009 (pdf) Small sample size.

BICYCLIST FATALITIES AND SERIOUS INJURIES IN NEW YORK CITY 1996-2005 (pdf) Collaboration of local government agencies.

"ONLY GOOD CYCLIST" (pdf) Study of NYC police reports by Right of Way group concludes motorists are more often at fault in car-bike collisions. See also "KILLED BY AUTOMOBILE," (pdf) 1999 report from Right of Way organization on pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities in NYC 1994-1997. 

"ON 'DOORINGS' OF BICYCLISTS ..." Article by Al Baker on New York Times' City Room blog, October 28, 2010, includes some figures on numbers of doorings in New York state, and information on applicable laws.

BOSTON EMS BIKE CRASH DATA MAP Shows EMS responses to bike accidents in city of Boston, one year, October 31, 2009 to October 31, 2010.

OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES AMONG BOSTON MESSENGERS Harvard researcher J. Dennerlein presents a non-robust 2002 survey that focuses on the danger of messenger work, but with data that (inadvertently, and unknown to prof. Dennerlein) confirms veteran messengers carry accident rates better than those found in the major surveys of club cyclists.

BICYCLE-MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENTS IN METROPOLITAN BOSTON 1979-80 On John Allen's site. This old study by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council is based on a sampling of reported collisions, and confirms a profound correlation of age with accident type.

CITY OF BOISE CYCLING SAFETY TASK FORCE FINAL REPORT (pdf) 2009 report contains crash statistics for previous five years, recommends continuing 'Idaho Stop' law.

SAFE STREETS BOULDER 2012 (pdf) A study of motor vehicle accidents involving bicycles and pedestrians, study period 2008-2011. From the City of Boulder. See Robert Hurst's thoughts on this study here: BOULDER STREETS SAFE?

BICYCLE ACCIDENTS IN FORT COLLINS, COLORADO 2000-2009 (pdf) Survey of reported accidents appears to show accident and injury rates on the rise.

CITY OF MADISON, WISCONSIN 2010 CRASH REPORT (pdf).

MESA ARIZONA BIKE-CAR WRECK STUDY (pdf) Study of police reports from all reported accidents in Mesa, Arizona in 2005.

THE OHSU PORTLAND, OREGON BICYCLIST INJURY SURVEY (pdf) Published in Trauma, November, 2010. Introduces a rather expansive definition of "traumatic event."

SEATTLE INTERACTIVE BICYCLE ACCIDENT MAP 2011 From the Seattle Times

SAN FRANCISCO BIKE ACCIDENT DATABASE 2010 The Bay Citizen.

FATALITY ANALYSIS REPORTING SYSTEM (FARS) Seductive numbers of dubious utility. People want to draw conclusions from the annual fatality numbers, but the conclusions don't necessarily follow. See also: FARS PEDALCYCLIST PAGESee also this article by Robert Hurst commenting on the different fatality numbers provided by the FARS and WISQARS databases.

ROAD FATALITIES USA Map of US road deaths for all users, from FARS database, 2001-2009. Zoom-in-outable.

BICYCLIST DEATHS AND FATALITY RISK PATTERNS Abstract, Gregory Rodgers, Accident Analysis and Prevention, April 1995.

INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY'S BICYCLE FATALITY ANALYSIS PAGE Meta-analysis of FARS data.

THE NEISS HOME PAGE CPSC'S National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS), the best injury data available. See also THE NEISS CODING MANUAL (pdf).

WISQARS (WEB-BASED INJURY STATISTICS QUERY AND REPORTING SYSTEM) Uses NEISS data. See also this article by Robert Hurst commenting on the different fatality numbers provided by the FARS and WISQARS databases.

CYCLISTS INJURED WHILE SHARING THE ROAD WITH MOTOR VEHICLES Abstract of 2007 article by Haileyesus, et al in Injury Prevention. Analysis of NEISS data shows car-bike crashes are involved in only about 15% of all cyclist ER visits.

RISK FACTORS FOR BICYCLE-MOTOR VEHICLE COLLISIONS AT INTERSECTIONS By Alan Wachtel and Diana Lewiston. A look at reported collisions from the late 1980s in Palo Alto, California, crossed with exposure data provided by the city. On Bicyclinglife.

INJURY SEVERITY IN BICYCLE-MOTOR VEHICLE CRASHES Abstract of 2006 article using police-reported data from North Carolina.

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES 2001 article by Thompson and Rivara in American Family Physician.

PEDIATRIC HOSPITALIZATIONS FOR BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES Abstract of 2007 article from Injury Prevention.

THE OHIO BICYCLE INJURY STUDY Abstract of 1995 paper examining 52 hospital admissions of child cyclists in Ohio.

CPSC'S BICYCLE USE AND HAZARD PATTERNS IN THE UNITED STATES (pdf) One of the most ... questionable documents on the list. See also Dr. Gregory Rodgers' informative DEFENSE OF THE CPSC STUDY against John Allen.

2010 NHTSA BICYCLISTS AND OTHER CYCLISTS FACT SHEET (pdf)2008 NHTSA BICYCLISTS AND OTHER CYCLISTS FACT SHEET (pdf) /  2007 NHTSA PEDALCYCLIST FACT SHEET (UPDATED) (pdf)2007 NHTSA PEDALCYCLIST FACT SHEET (pdf) / 2004 NHTSA PEDALCYCLIST FACT SHEET (pdf) / 2001 NHTSA PEDALCYCLIST FACT SHEET (pdf) / 1998 NHTSA PEDALCYCLIST FACT SHEET (pdf) / 1993 NHTSA PEDALCYCLIST FACT SHEET (pdf) Beware of 'Fact Sheets,' especially when they contradict other 'Fact Sheets' produced by the same agency.

2005 MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC CRASH FATALITY COUNTS AND INJURY ESTIMATES (pdf) NHTSA estimates show marked increase in injuries to non-occupants in 2005.

INCIDENCE OF PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLIST CRASHES BY HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES (pdf) 2009 NCSA report.

INJURY TO PEDESTRIANS AND BICYCLISTS (pdf) FHWA analysis based on data from a handful of emergency rooms. Data collected '95-'96.

NHTSA PEDESTRIAN CRASH REPORT (pdf) Updated through 2006, report released 2008. See also PEDESTRIAN ROADWAY FATALITIES (pdf) 2003 NHTSA report. Neither report mentions bike-ped collisions.

SAFETY IN NUMBERS: MORE WALKERS AND BICYCLISTS, SAFER WALKING AND BICYCLING Abstract of 2003 paper by Jacobsen. This paper merits a special chapter in THE CYCLIST'S MANIFESTO.

THE CONTINUING DEBATE ABOUT SAFETY IN NUMBERS (pdf) 2006 paper from the UC Berkeley Traffic Safety Center examines the theory with respect to pedestrian data from Oakland, finds a relationship.

THE IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE ON BICYCLING INJURIES AND CRASHES: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2009 meta-analysis of 23 papers, in Environmental Health. See also FACILITIES AND PLANNING below.

USE OF ALCOHOL AS A RISK FACTOR FOR BICYCLING INJURY 2001 article on the JAMA site.

ALCOHOL, BICYCLING AND HEAD AND BRAIN INJURY: A STUDY OF IMPAIRED CYCLISTS' RIDING PATTERNS (Abstract) Analysis of 200 patients processed through a regional trauma center in Austin, Texas.

ACCIDENT ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION Free abstracts and tables of contents for this important journal.

A GUIDE FOR REDUCING COLLISIONS INVOLVING BICYCLES 2008 report by Transportation Research Board from analysis of several data sets. View pdf via TRB website.

THE ART OF CYCLINGSTAYING SAFE ON CITY STREETS  2014

The legendary traffic safety manual has been revised, updated and expanded. This book contains the collective street knowledge of the world's most experienced riders, all wrapped in historical context like a spicy truth burrito. Read it and pass it on!

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ACCIDENT SURVEYS AND STATISTICS - INTERNATIONAL

CRITICAL FACTORS IN FATAL COLLISIONS OF ADULT CYCLISTS WITH AUTOMOBILES Abstract of 2010 article in Accident Analysis and Prevention examining police reports of fatal car-bike collisions in the Czech Republic from 1995-2007.

EXPOSURE-BASED ASSESSMENT OF MODAL TRAVEL RISK IN ENGLAND USING ROUTINE HEALTH DATA Abstract of September 2012 study by Mindell, Lesley and Wardlaw, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. Fatality risk by travel mode in England, based on police reports and National Travel Survey.

THE INFLUENCE OF A BICYLE COMMUTER'S APPEARANCE ON DRIVERS' OVERTAKING PROXIMITIES Abstract of 2014 paper by Ian Walker testing the effect on passing distance of seven different outfits. 

ANALYSIS OF POLICE COLLISION FILES FOR PEDAL CYCLIST FATALITIES IN LONDON, 2001-2006 (pdf) Link to paper by Keigan, Cuerden and Wheeler.

LONDON BIKE ACCIDENT MAP Graphic depiction of London bike wrecks that occurred from August 2010 to July 2011, with a bit of info on each one. January 3, 2011, Guardian.

REVIEW OF THE 'LOOKED BUT FAILED TO SEE' ACCIDENT CAUSATION FACTOR (pdf) From Department of Transport, UK.

INFRASTRUCTURE AND CYCLIST SAFETY (pdf) 2010 report by Stuart Reid and Simon Adams, Transport Research Laboratory. Provides a good review of various infrastructure-related accident studies from a variety of countries.

WALKING, CYCLING AND TRANSPORT SAFETY: AN ANALYSIS OF CHILD ROAD DEATHS Study of fatalities of English and Welsh children since '85; results given in depressingly useless per-unit of population format.

THE ACTUAL RISK OF CYCLING IN GREAT BRITAIN (pdf) Meta-analysis by Wardlaw is good for several hearty laughs.

Miles Kemp, "Four in every five crashes between cars and bicycles caused by driver of car," adelaidenow.com.au, Feb. 19, 2013. Article about an examination of police reports from the University of Adelaide's Centre for Automotive Safety Research.

SPECIAL BICYCLING SAFETY EDITION OF THE JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE OF ROAD SCIENCE (pdf) August 2010. Includes articles with and about accident stats.

MELBOURNE CYCLE-COMMUTER VIDEO EXPERIMENT Article on BikeRadar site about ommuters rolling cameras to record their adventures for study, 2010.

BICYCLE ACCIDENTS IN CHILDHOOD (pdf) 1987 BMJ article based on a ten-year study of serious accidents in Brisbane.

CHILDREN AND BICYCLES: WHAT IS REALLY HAPPENING 1995 article in Injury Prevention updated the '87 Australian study BICYCLE ACCIDENTS IN CHILDHOOD (pdf).

BICYCLE INJURIES: ROAD TRAUMA NOT THE ONLY CONCERN Abstract of Australian research with data from the early '90s.

SAFETY IN NUMBERS IN AUSTRALIA: MORE WALKERS AND BICYCLISTS, SAFER WALKING AND BICYCLING (pdf) 2005 paper by relentless Robinson, Health Promotion Journal of Australia.

SAFETY IN NUMBERS -- THE EURO EDITION (pdf) From the UK's Cycle Tourists' Club, 2009. Still more assumptions presented as science, I'm afraid.

CONSPICUITY AND BICYCLE CRASHES: PRELIMINARY FINDINGS FROM THE TAUPO STUDY (pdf) Survey of recreational cyclists in New Zealand.

INCIDENCE, RISK, AND PROTECTIVE FACTORS OF BICYCLE CRASHES Full text of 2013 New Zealand study by Sandar Tin Tin, et al, Preventive Medicine.

MISSING CYCLISTS (pdf) Analysis of hospital and government data in New Zealand reveals a high percentage of serious injuries go untallied.

TORONTO BICYCLE-MOTOR VEHICLE COLLISION STUDY Analysis of over 2500 wrecks in 2003 finds cyclists in Toronto crash pretty much the same as their counterparts to the south.

CIRCUMSTANCES OF INJURIES TO CYCLISTS RESULTING IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT VISITS IN TORONTO & VANCOUVER (pdf) 2010 study based on interviews of a few hundred riders who visited ERs or were hospitalized in 2008.

MOUNTAIN BIKING INJURIES REQUIRING TRAUMA CENTER ADMISSION: A 10-YEAR REGIONAL TRAUMA SYSTEM EXPERIENCE Abstract of study analyziing injuries presenting at Greater Vancouver area trauma centers -- North Shore -- from 1992-2002. Kim, et al, Trauma, 2006.

TORONTO BICYCLE COMMUTER SAFETY RATES Abstract of 1999 study by Aultman-Hall and Kaltenecker in Accident Analysis and Prevention.

THE MONTREAL CYCLETRACK STUDY Anne Lusk, et al, Injury Prevention, February 2011. Seeks to counteract a smear campaign with a whitewash.

ANALYZING ROAD SURFACE CONDITIONS, COLLISION TIME, AND ROAD STRUCTURAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH BICYCLE COLLISIONS FROM 2000-2010 IN SASKATOON, SASKATCHEWAN Chen and Fuller, Journal of Transport & Health, March 2014. Open access.

A REVIEW OF ALL ACCIDENTAL CYCLING DEATHS IN ONTARIO FROM JANUARY 1ST, 2006 TO DECEMBER 31ST, 2010. From the Ontario Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services, June 2012.

BICYCLIST AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH FATAL BICYCLE-RELATED TRAUMA IN ONTARIO Link to full text of 1996 article by Rowe, Rowe and Bota.

OTTAWA-CARLETON COMMUTER CYCLIST ON- AND OFF-ROAD INCIDENT RATES Abstract. Survey-based study by Aultman-Hall and Hall, Accident Analysis and Prevention, January, 1998.

ESTIMATING THE RISK OF COLLISIONS BETWEEN BICYCLES AND MOTOR-VEHICLES AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS Abstract of 2004 study from University of Washington, data from Tokyo.

DR. EERO PASANEN'S PAPER ON THE RISKS OF BICYCLING A study of crashes in Helsinki leads the doctor to conclude that bicycling is relatively dangerous. (Posted on John Allen's website.)

ATTENTION AND EXPECTATION PROBLEMS IN CAR-BICYCLE COLLISIONS: AN IN-DEPTH STUDY (Abstract) 1998 analysis of 188 wrecks in Finland reveals problems with intersections of roads and 'cycle-tracks.'

CYCLING, SAFETY AND HEALTH (pdf) By Thomas Krag.

LOOKED-BUT-FAILED-TO-SEE ERRORS IN TRAFFIC Abstract of 2003 Danish report in Accident Analysis and Prevention.

'DANGER SPOTS' FOR CYCLISTS Abstract of 2000 study of Danish ER data suggests some locales particularly dangerous.

THE IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE ON BICYCLING INJURIES AND CRASHES: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 2009 meta-analysis of 23 papers, in Environmental Health. See more on infrastructure below under FACILITIES AND PLANNING.

DO THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF CYCLING OUTWEIGH THE RISKS? Results from Holland, 2010, Environmental Health Perspectives. Nothing surprising here.

PROMOTING SAFE WALKING AND CYCLING TO IMPROVE PUBLIC HEALTH: LESSONS FROM THE NETHERLANDS AND GERMANY (pdf) Might better be placed under Advocacy, but with interesting statistical manipulations. By Pucher and Dijkstra, 2003. See also the 2008 article MAKING CYCLING IRRESISTIBLE: LESSONS FROM THE NETHERLANDS, DENMARK AND GERMANY (pdf) which falls into the same category.

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BICYCLE INJURIES IN IRAN Abstract of recently published article with 2003 data.

BICYCLE-RELATED INJURIES IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (pdf) A small study of 200 ER patients reveals strikingly similar patterns to those found in the US and elsewhere.

INJURIES TO CYCLISTS IN GERMANY Abstract of German study of thousands of cyclists injured since 1985.

THE CURRENT INJURY SITUATION OF BICYCLISTS -- A MEDICAL AND TECHNICAL CRASH ANALYSIS (Abstract) Study of 4,264 injured cyclists in Germany from 1985 to 2003.

COMMUTING BY BIKE IN BELGIUM: THE COSTS OF MINOR ACCIDENTS Abstract, November 2010, Accident Analysis and Prevention.

DETERMINANTS AND PATTERNS OF BICYCLE USE AND TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS AMONG BICYCLING WORKERS, PELOTAS, BRAZIL 2005 study. Abstract in English, full article in Portuguese.

FATALITY RISK FACTORS FOR CYCLISTS IN CROATIA (pdf) 2003 article from Croatia Medical Journal.

FATAL INJURIES IN BICYCLISTS Abstract of small study in Slovak journal Soud Lek, 1999.

ELECTRIC-BICYCLE-RELATED INJURY: A RISING TRAFFIC INJURY BURDEN IN CHINA Abstract, Injury Prevention, June 24 2010. The 1st Affiliated Hospital. The danger of cycling without the health benefit.

BICYCLE CRASH CASUALTIES IN A HIGHLY MOTORIZED CITY Abstract of 2010 article by Loo and Tsui, Accident Analysis and Prevention. What it's like to get run over in Hong Kong. Different than getting run over elsewhere?

Note also the international research under PATTERNS OF USE, FACILITIES, and HELMET WARS.

THE ART OF MOUNTAIN BIKINGSINGLETRACK SKILLS FOR ALL RIDERS  2011

No matter how many years you ride, you'll never master the unique art of riding a two-wheeled machine on a skinny, rocky trail in the mountains. No matter how good you get, the trail will always be a little bit better. This book leaves few 'babyheads' unturned in its quest to provide useful trail-riding tips for all riders, from beginner to expert. Robert Hurst's love for the mountains, the trails and the bottomless challenge of riding them shines through in this darkly humorous manual.

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ACCIDENT SURVEYS AND STATISTICS - OTHER ROAD USERS

U.S. TRANSPORTATION SECRETARY LAHOOD ANNOUNCES LOWEST TRAFFIC FATALITIES IN SIX DECADES NHTSA press release on 2009 FARS (Fatality Analysis Reporting System) data, which showed a roughly 10% decline in traffic fatalities over the previous year. Since total Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) supposedly was flat from 2008 (FHWA HISTORICAL MONTHLY VMT REPORT 1970 - 2009), the decline in fatalities has given various agencies a chance to take credit. Press release contains link to FARS data.

ROAD FATALITIES USA Map of US road deaths for all users, from FARS database, 2001-2009. Zoom-in-outable. 

YOUNG DRIVERS (15-20) INVOLVED IN FATAL CRASHES (pdf) NHTSA statistical summary, December 2004.

THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING Abstract of 2009 article by Sewell, Poling and Sofuoglu, American Journal of Addiction. Apparently stoners drive quite nicely -- unless they've been drinking.

MOTORCYCLE RIDERS IN FATAL CRASHES (pdf) 2004 NHTSA brief analysis of moto fatalities in the US.

LITERATURE REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS TO IMPROVE THE CONSPICUITY OF MOTORCYCLISTS AND HELP AVOID 'LOOKED BUT FAILED TO SEE' ACCIDENTS Abstract of 2012 paper by Helman, Weare, Palmer and Fernandez-Medina. No silver bullets.

MOTORCYCLE RIDER CONSPICUITY AND CRASH-RELATED INJURY: CASE-CONTROL STUDY 2004 article by Wells, et al, British Medical Journal, data from Auckland, New Zealand.

INCREASING AGE AND EXPERIENCE: ARE BOTH PROTECTIVE AGAINST MOTORCYCLE INJURY? A CASE-CONTROL STUDY (pdf) Mullin, Jackson, Langley and Norton, Injury Prevention, 2000. Identifies age and experience with a specfic machine as the most important factors. Another NZ study.

NHTSA PEDESTRIAN CRASH REPORT (pdf) Updated through 2006, report released 2008.

PEDESTRIAN ROADWAY FATALITIES (pdf) 2003 NHTSA report.

"KILLED BY AUTOMOBILE," (pdf) 1999 report from Right of Way organization on pedestrian and bicyclist fatalities in NYC 1994-1997.

CHART FROM CITY OF PORTLAND, OREGON 2008 FATALITY SUMMARY

READ MORE ABOUT IT. SHOP FOR IT ON AMAZONBARNES N NOBLETATTERED COVERPOWELL'S.

PATTERNS OF USE

BICYCLING AND WALKING IN THE UNITED STATES 2012  Link to "Benchmarking report" from the Alliance for Biking and Walking, formerly Thunderhead Alliance. BICYCLING AND WALKING IN THE UNITED STATES 2010.  BICYCLING AND WALKING IN THE UNITED STATES (pdf) 2007 report from Thunderhead Alliance.

2010 U.S. BIKE COMMUTING STATISTICS Data from the US Community Survey, parsed by League of American Cyclists. 

PARTICIPATION STATISTICS FROM BIKES BELONG. A compilation.

NON-MOTORIZED COMMUTING IN THE U.S. Abstract of 2005 article by Plaut in Transportation Research.

UNDERSTANDING THE UNDERUTILIZATION OF URBAN BICYCLE COMMUTING: A BEHAVIORAL REASONING PERSPECTIVE (Abstract) Marius Claudy and Mark Peterson, Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 2014. 

NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD TRAVEL SURVEY (pdf) Summary of 2001 survey. See also THE REPORT FROM THE 2004 NHTS CONFERENCE (pdf)

CYCLING AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT, A U.S. PERSPECTIVE (Abstract) Patterns of use in King County, 2005.

CYCLING TRENDS AND POLICIES IN CANADIAN CITIES (pdf) Pucher's 2005 analysis of trends in six Canadian cities.

UTILITARIAN BICYCLING: A MULTI-LEVEL ANALYSIS OF CLIMATE AND PERSONAL INFLUENCES (pdf) 2007 study of Canadian cyclists by the University of British Columbia CYCLING IN CITIES program.

MAPPING CYCLING TRIPS Preliminary results of a survey of Vancouver cyclists which asked about preferred routes. From the U. of British Columbia's CYCLING IN CITIES program of research.

PROMOTING TRANSPORTATION CYCLING FOR WOMEN: THE ROLE OF BICYCLE INFRASTRUCTURE (pdf) 2007 article by Garrard, Rose and Lo based on observance of thousands of Melbourne bicyclists. The researchers found that women, more so than men, prefer separated facilities.

FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH BICYCLE OWNERSHIP AND USE; A STUDY OF 6 SMALL US CITIES (pdf) 2008 article by Xing, Handy and Buehler, UC Davis.

INFRASTRUCTURE, PROGRAMS AND POLICIES TO INCREASE BICYCLING: AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW (pdf) 2009 paper by Pucher, Dill and Handy finds positive role for public policy.

PSYCHO-SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CYCLING FOR TRANSPORT AMONG A WORKING POPULATION (Abstract) Among a working Flemish population, that is. 2007.

EXPLAINING CHANGES IN WALKING AND BICYCLING BEHAVIOR: CHALLENGES FOR TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH (pdf) 2009 meta-article by Krizek, Handy and Forsyth.

UNDERSTANDING ADOLESCENTS' INTENTIONS TO COMMUTE BY BICYCLE OR CAR AS ADULTS Abstract of 2013 study based on a survey of Danish teens.

THE BICYCLE AND THE CITY: DESIRES AND EMOTIONS VERSUS ATTITUDES HABITS AND NORMS Abstract of study by Paola Passafaro, et al based on a questionnaire given to residents of Rome, Italy. Journal of Environmental Psychology, June 2014.

'BIKETIVISM' AND TECHNOLOGY: HISTORICAL REFLECTIONS AND APPROPRIATIONS Abstract of 2005 article by Zack Furness in the journal Social Epistemology.

WHO IS THE TYPICAL BICYCLIST? Abstract of 2009 article by Birgitta Batersleben and Hebba Haddad, UK. "...responsible, lifestyle, commuter and hippy-go-lucky."

BICYCLE IN SHANGHAI: MOVEMENT PATTERNS, CYCLIST ATTITUDES AND THE IMPACT OF TRAFFIC SEPARATION Abstract of article by Zacharias in Transport Reviews, July 2002.

NATIONAL PREVALENCE AND CORRELATES OF WALKING AND BIKING TO SCHOOL Abstract of 2007 article from American Journal of Preventive Medicine with discouraging results.

PREVALENCE OF ACTIVE COMMUTING AT URBAN AND SUBURBAN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN COLUMBIA, SC (pdf) 2005 study by Sirard, Ainsworth, McIver and Pate, American Journal of Public Health.

CHILDREN'S ACTIVE COMMUTING TO SCHOOL: CURRENT KNOWLEDGE AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS 2008 article by Davison, Werder and Lawson.

EVIDENCE FOR SECULAR TRENDS IN CHILDREN'S PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEHAVIOUR Link to pdf and references of this 2005 review by Dollman, Norton, Norton and Cleland. British Journal of Sports Medicine.

PARENT OPINIONS ABOUT THE APPROPRIATE AGES AT WHICH ADULT SUPERVISION IS UNNECESSARY FOR BATHING, STREET CROSSING AND BICYCLING 945 Colorado households surveyed. The answer for bicycling: about 12 years-old.

MASS COMMUNITY CYCLING EVENTS: WHO PARTICIPATES AND IS THEIR BEHAVIOR INFLUENCED BY PARTICIPATION 2006 article about Australian riders.

INEQUALITIES IN USAGE OF A PUBLIC BICYCLE SHARING SCHEME: SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PREDICTORS OF UPTAKE AND USAGE OF THE LONDON CYCLE HIRE SCHEME Ogilvie and Goodman, Preventive Medicine, July 2012. Open access.

LOCAL AREA WALKING AND CYCLING IN ENGLAND: 2012 TO 2013 Showing slight delcines. 2005-6 BRITISH TRANSPORT STATS (pdf)

BICYCLE RETAILER AND INDUSTRY NEWS ANNUAL STATS ISSUE (pdf) Excerpt of summer 2011 issue looks back on 2010 numbers. 

BICYCLE DEALERS' SALES NUMBERS Still not selling as many adult bikes as they did in 1973.

BICYCLE SAFETY BEHAVIOR IN PARIS AND BOSTON Abstract of 1998 article in Accident Analysis and Prevention. Americans wear helmets, Parisians use proper lighting.

LOS ANGELES COUNTY BIKE COUNT DATA CLEARINGHOUSE

MINNEAPOLIS 2011 BICYCLING ACCOUNT (pdf) Update on bicycle counts and infrastructure projects by City of Minneapolis Public Works Dept.

NEW YORK CITY BICYCLE SCREENLINE COUNT (pdf) Very strong growth through 2012.  NYCDOT BICYCLE COUNTS

GREATER PHILADELPHIA BICYCLE FACTS 2008 (pdf)

PORTLAND BICYCLE COUNT REPORT 2012 Continues rising. CITY OF PORTLAND 2011 BICYCLE COUNTS (pdf) Up for the second straight year. PORTLAND BICYCLE COUNTS REPORT 2010 From Portland Bureau of Transportation. After a little dip in 2009, it was back up for 2010.

"IT'S OFFICIAL: PORTLAND SAYS NUMBER OF BICYCLE TRIPS DECLINED IN 2009" Link to article by Joe Rose. Article includes links to the 2009 counts.

SFMTA 2013 BICYCLE COUNT (pdf) Showing strong growth since 2011. 2009 SAN FRANCISCO CITYWIDE BICYCLE COUNTS REPORT (pdf) Up 50% since 2006.  2007 SAN FRANCISCO CITYWIDE BICYCLE COUNTS REPORT (pdf).

WALKING, BICYCLING AND URBAN LANDSCAPES: EVIDENCE FROM THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA 2003 study by Cervelo and Duncan, American Journal of Public Health.

DOWNTOWN SEATTLE BICYCLE COUNTS (pdf) Showing data for 2000, 2007, 2009 and 2011.

CITY OF TORONTO BIKE COUNTS 

ACTIVE SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION IN THE GREATER TORONTO AREA (1986-2006). Abstract, Buliung, Mitra and Faulkner, Preventive Medicine, 2009. A decline not nearly as severe as that seen around the U.S.

VANCOUVER 2008-2009 STATISTICS UPDATE (pdf) 

CITY OF VANCOUVER BICYCLING STATISTICS. A quick overview on patterns of use.

CYCLING STATISTICS FROM DENMARK Short list of 'facts' from the Cycling Embassy of Denmark.

Amelia Hill, "Copenhagen's novel problem: too many cyclists," The Guardian,Sept. 9, 2011.

THE CHANGING TRENDS OF BICYCLE USAGE IN CHINA: MACROLEVEL ANALYSIS Abstract of 2013 paper by Yang, Li, Wang, Ye, Zhao. Transportation Research Board. Results not encouraging or surprising.

PROMOTING WALKING AND CYCLING AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO USING CARS: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW (pdf) What gets people out of their cars and onto bicycles? 2004 article.

"BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN DATA: SOURCES, NEEDS AND GAPS" (pdf) USDOT Bureau of Transportation Statistics document.

MEASURING THE PULSE OF THE CITY THROUGH SHARED BICYCLE PROGRAMS Presentation by Froehlich, Neumann and Oliver, International Workshop on Urban, Community, and social Applications of Networked Sensing Systems ("Urbansense08"), November 4, 2008.

THE ART OF CYCLINGSTAYING SAFE ON CITY STREETS  2014

The legendary traffic safety manual has been revised, updated and expanded. This book contains the collective street knowledge of the world's most experienced riders, all wrapped in historical context like a spicy truth burrito. Read it and pass it on!

READ MORE ABOUT IT. SHOP FOR IT: AMAZONBARNES N NOBLETATTERED COVERPOWELL'S.

FACILITIES AND PLANNING

EVALUATING PROTECTED LANES (pdf) The June, 2014 Portland State University video study that found very low numbers of "near-misses" at signalized intersections along cycletracks. Also contains survey information about user preferences and impressions of safety. 

EVALUATION OF ON-STREET BICYCLE FACILITIES ADDED TO EXISTING ROADWAYS (pdf) University of Texas study, 2006.

BICYCLE COMPATIBILITY INDEX (pdf) 1998 FHWA study in which bicyclists watched and rated videos of different types of roads and facilities.

THE "DESIGN CYCLIST" (pdf) Are you a Type A, B or C?

TRAILS, LANES OR TRAFFIC: VALUING BICYCLE FACILITIES WITH AN ADAPTIVE STATED PREFERENCE SURVEY Abstract of 2007 study that found many cyclists will ride far out of their way to use a nice bike path.

REVIEW OF BASIC RESEARCH IN BICYCLE TRAFFIC SCIENCE, TRAFFIC OPERATIONS, AND FACILITY DESIGN (pdf) Paper by Dean Taylor and W. Jeffrey Davis, somewhat dated.

MINNEAPOLIS 2011 BICYCLING ACCOUNT (pdf) Update on bicycle counts and infrastructure projects by City of Minneapolis Public Works Dept. The country's first "advisory bike lane."

BICYCLE PLANNING AND FACILITY DESIGN BEST PRACTICES (pdf) City of Sacramento bicycle master plan, 2005.

VALENCIA STREET BIKE LANES: A ONE YEAR EVALUATION (pdf) Report by Sallaberry, 2000, San Francisco Department of Parking and Traffic, a glowing report card for one street's makeover.

PROSPECT PARK WEST PROTECTED BIKE PATH AND TRAFFIC CALMING UPDATE (pdf) Before and after study with raw data, from NYCDOT, 2011.

2004 SAN FRANCISCO SHARROW STUDY (pdf)

WALKING, BICYCLING AND URBAN LANDSCAPES: EVIDENCE FROM THE SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA 2003 study by Cervelo and Duncan, American Journal of Public Health.

EVALUATION OF SHARED-USE FACILITIES (pdf) 1996 report prepared for Florida DOT.

AN OVERVIEW OF SHARED BICYCLE/BUS LANES IN THE UNITES STATES (Abstract) 2013 paper sponsored by Transportation Research Board.

BICYCLE POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN PRINCIPALS: CONTINUOUS AND INTEGRAL (pdf).Fietsberaad publication number 7, 2010.

BICYCLE TRACKS AND LANES: A BEFORE AND AFTER STUDY (pdf) 2008 paper by Soren Jensen, 87th TRB Annual Meeting. Download from Trafitec site.

THE MONTREAL CYCLETRACK STUDY Anne Lusk, et al, Injury Prevention, February 2011. Full article. Countering a smear campaign with a whitewash.

ROAD SAFETY AND PERCEIVED RISK OF CYCLE FACILITIES IN COPENHAGEN (pdf) 2007 paper points to increase in accidents and injuries associated with cycle tracks. Download pdf fromTrafitec site.

INFRASTRUCTURE AND CYCLIST SAFETY 2010 report by Stuart Reid and Simon Adams, Transport Research Laboratory.

THE EFFECT OF CYCLE LANES ON THE PROXIMITY BETWEEN MOTOR TRAFFIC AND CYCLE TRAFFIC Abstract of 2009 paper by University of Bolton researchers Parkin and Meyers. Uses an 'instrumented bicycle' similar to THE WALKER HELMET/PASSING DISTANCE STUDY.

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BICYCLE LANES VERSUS WIDE CURB LANES (pdf) 1999 FHWA report based on videos of cyclists in action in three different cities.

THE BALTIMORE PASSING DISTANCE STUDY (pdf) By Love, et al, Johns Hopkins, 2012. Bike lanes look good, sharrows look bad -- but be careful with the data, which is very selective.

PEDESTRIAN-CYCLIST CONFLICT MINIMISATION ON SHARED-USE PATHS AND FOOTPATHS (pdf) 2006 report out of Australia.

SAFETY ISSUES OF SHARED-USE PATHS 2007 article by Holubowycz provides not much useful information.

GUIDELINES FOR ANALYSIS OF INVESTMENTS IN BICYCLE FACILITIES View pdf on website of the Transportation Research Board.

AN EXPERT JUDGMENT MODEL APPLIED TO ESTIMATING THE SAFETY EFFECT OF A BICYCLE FACILITY Abstract of 2000 article.

BIKEWAYS TO PROSPERITY: ASSESSING THE ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF BICYCLE FACILITIES (pdf) A rosy look at the cash-generating possibilities of bicycle tourism by the North Carolina DOT, 2006.

TRAFFIC CALMING: STATE OF THE PRACTICE (pdf) 237-page report, joint effort of FHWA and Canadian agencies, 1999.

BICYCLE BOULEVARDS (pdf) Article by John Ciccarelli, in Fall 1999 Tech Transfer, UC Institute for Transportation Studies.

NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CITY TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS' URBAN BIKEWAY 'DESIGN GUIDE' 2011 Seeks to promote sub-standard facilities.

INFO ON ROUNDABOUTS FROM THE INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY FAQ on this increasingly popular treatment that may increase danger for cyclists, with long list of references.

THE EFFECT OF ROUNDABOUT DESIGN FEATURES ON CYCLIST ACCIDENT RATE Abstract of Danish study, 2006.

THE EFFECTS OF ROUNDABOUTS ON TRAFFIC SAFETY FOR BICYCLISTS Abstract of 2007 study of 91 roundabouts in Belgium.

THE DIVERGING DIAMOND INTERCHANGE Could be the next big thing. Info from FHWA.

PORTLAND'S BIKE BOX INFORMATIONAL VIDEO Requires Flash player.

EVALUATION OF BIKE BOXES AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTIONS: INITIAL FINDINGS (pdf) 2009 paper by Chistopher Monsere and Jennifer Dill finds no real safety benefit with Portland bike boxes.

BEHAVIOUR AT CYCLE ADVANCED STOP LINES 2007 British 'bike box' study.

LONDON'S 'CYCLE SUPER-HIGHWAYS' PROGRAM Information page with maps of proposed routes and promotional video. These particular facilities would seem to be mis-named, as they are on-road facilities with frequent intersections.

EVALUATION OF BLUE BIKE-LANE TREATMENT IN PORTLAND, OREGON (pdf) Data collected 1997-99, by Hunter, Harkey, Stewart and Birk.

PORTLAND'S 2009 BIKE FACILITIES MASTER PLAN from PDOT. Draft of Portland's 2030 Master Plan can be downloaded here.

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF REBUILT BICYCLE PATHS AT INTERSECTIONS ON ARTERIAL STREETS IN LUND, SWEDEN (pdf) Paper by Stefanie Konig from relatively recent data.

"TAIPEI'S DUNHUA BICYCLE LANE CONFOUNDS CYCLISTS" Link to article in Taipei Times, August 2009.

DAVIS COMPREHENSIVE BICYCLE PLAN 2006 (pdf)

FIFTY YEARS OF BICYCLE POLICY IN DAVIS, CALIFORNIA Abstract of article by Buehler, Handy (UC Davis), Transportation Research Board, 2008.

SEATTLE'S GUIDANCE FOR RETROFITTING ARTERIAL STREETS WITH BICYCLE FACILITIES (pdf)

COLORADO DOT ROADWAY DESIGN STANDARDS Links to drawings.

BICYCLE PARKING FACILITIES GUIDELINES (pdf) Short guide from the City of Portland.

AASHTO'S GUIDELINES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BICYCLE FACILITIES (pdf) 1999 document from the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.

FHWA DESIGN GUIDANCE US government policy statement for developing walking and bicycling infrastructure.

MANUAL OF UNIFORM TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES 2009 EDITION Download new guidelines from FHWA site. Bicycle section is part 9.

INITIAL FINDINGS: KINZIE STREET PROTECTED BIKE LANE JUNE - SEPTEMBER 2011 (pdf)  No safety data, but the facility seems to be popular.

NYC BIKESMART BROCHURE 2010 (pdf) From the DOT, interesting new facilities/planning paradigm taking over in NYC. How it shakes out: 2012 NYC CYCLING MAP (pdf).

ROUTE INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE RISK OF INJURIES TO BICYCLISTS: A CASE-CROSSOVER STUDY Abstract of 2012 study involving injured cyclists in Toronto, by Teschke et al., American Journal of Public Health.

THE ART OF MOUNTAIN BIKINGSINGLETRACK SKILLS FOR ALL RIDERS  2011

No matter how many years you ride, you'll never master the unique art of riding a two-wheeled machine on a skinny, rocky trail in the mountains. No matter how good you get, the trail will always be a little bit better. This book leaves few 'babyheads' unturned in its quest to provide useful trail-riding tips for all riders, from beginner to expert. Robert Hurst's love for the mountains, the trails and the bottomless challenge of riding them shines through in this darkly humorous manual.

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HELMET WARS

[Better get your waders on. Make that a rubber suit.]

THE BRITISH HELMET CURMUDGEONS: CYCLEHELMETS.ORG The threat of mandatory helmet laws for adults in England has spawned the helmet skeptics. An impressive list of articles presented and/or skewered.

"BICYCLE HELMETS: IT'S TIME TO USE THEM" Link to editorial by well-known pro-helmet researchers Thompson, Rivara and Thompson, 2000.

A CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF BICYCLE HELMETS Abstract of the widely-cited 1989 article by Thompson, Rivara and Thompson from the New England Journal of Medicine. Even if it's good data (which is highly debatable) does data concerning child bicyclists transfer to adults?

EFFECTIVENESS OF BICYCLE SAFETY HELMETS IN PREVENTING HEAD INJURIES Thompson, Rivara and Thompson, JAMA, 1996 (Abstract on JAMA site).

DAMAGE TO BICYCLE HELMETS INVOLVED WITH CRASHES Abstract of 1997 study by the Thompson-Rivara Seattle crew, shows that the vast majority of helmets that were worn by ER patients presenting with "head injuries" showed no damage at all or very little damage. Accident Analysis and Prevention, September 1997.

EFFECTS OF BICYCLE HELMET LAWS ON CHILDREN'S INJURIES Link to 2013 paper by Chatterji and Markowitz, National Bureau of Economic Research. The researchers find that reductions in children's injuries in places with mandatory helmet laws may be due to the decrease in cycling caused by the laws themselves.

PREVALENCE OF BICYCLE HELMET USE BY USERS OF PUBLIC BIKESHARE PROGRAMS Abstract of article by Fischer, et al, Annals of Emergency Medicine, 2012. 

THE EFFICACY OF BICYCLE HELMETS AGAINST BRAIN INJURY Abstract, Curnow, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 2003.

BICYCLE HELMET EFFICACY: A META-ANALYSIS Abstract, Attewell, Glase and McFadden, Accident Analysis & Prevention, May 2001.

TRENDS IN SERIOUS HEAD INJURIES AMONG CYCLISTS IN ENGLAND Interesting data from the 1990s showing decreasing head injury rate among wrecked riders could easily be explained by other factors besides helmets.

A DECREASE IN BICYCLE-RELATED HEAD INJURIES IN HELMET WEARING AGES IN SWEDEN (Abstract) Authors of 2007 article would like to ascribe a decrease in head injuries among Swedish children to increased helmet use; the fact that head injuries increased among adults during the same period won't stop them from doing just that. See this 2005 article which showed helmet use among all Swedes was increasing.

HELMET LAWS AND CYCLE USE (pdf) Article from Injury Prevention, 2003, by D.L. Robinson, Macpherson, Parkin and To.

BICYCLE HELMET LEGISLATION: CAN WE REACH A CONSENSUS Abstract of D.L. Robinson, Accident Analysis and Prevention, January 2007.

EFFECTIVENESS OF HELMET LEGISLATION TO INCREASE HELMET USE: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW (pdf) 2006 article from Injury Prevention by Karkhaneh, et al.

CYCLE HELMETS: THE CASE FOR AND AGAINST Abstract of Meyer Hillman's 1993 article.

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF BICYCLE INJURY, HEAD INJURY, AND HELMET USE AMONG CHILDREN IN BRITISH COLUMBIA By Linn, Smith and Sheps. Abstract and full text on the Injury Prevention journal site. More kid data.

NO CLEAR EVIDENCE FROM COUNTRIES WITH MANDATORY HELMET LAWS 2006 article by D.L. Robinson on BMJ site. See also Riley Geary's letter to BMJ.

CHANGES IN HEAD INJURY WITH THE NEW ZEALAND BICYCLE HELMET LAW Abstract of article by D.L. Robinson, 2000 (on sciencedirect.com).

NEW ZEALAND BICYCLE HELMET LAW: DO THE COSTS OUTWEIGH THE BENEFITS (pdf) 2002 article by Scuffham and Taylor, Injury Prevention.

TRENDS IN CYCLE INJURY IN NEW ZEALAND UNDER VOLUNTARY HELMET USE Scuffham and Langley, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1997.

INTENDED AND UNINTENDED EFFECTS OF YOUTH BICYCLE HELMET LAWS (pdf) 2007 paper by Carpenter and Stehr.

THE EFFECT OF PROVINCIAL BICYCLE HELMET LEGISLATION ON HELMET USE AND BICYCLE RIDERSHIP IN CANADA Abstract of 2010 study in Injury Prevention. Data from 2000-2007, Nova Scotia, Ontario and Saskatchewan. Claims no relationship between helmet use and ridership.

BICYCLE SAFETY BEHAVIOR IN PARIS AND BOSTON Abstract of 1998 article in Accident Analysis and Prevention. The authors found that Americans wear helmets, while Parisians use proper lighting.

THE WALKER HELMET/PASSING DISTANCE STUDY Abstract of the most talked-about cycling-related research in decades. 2007. Note: search for more recent rebuttals of Walker's study.

ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT BICYCLE HELMETS FOR THE POTENTIAL TO CAUSE ROTATIONAL INJURY Abstract of 2007 article by Chinn and St. Clair.

OBLIQUE IMPACT TESTING OF BICYCLE HELMETS Abstract of 2007 article by Mills and Gilchrist in the International Journal of Impact Engineering.

RISKY BUSINESS: SAFETY REGULATIONS, RISK COMPENSATION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR (pdf) 2000 article by James Hedlund, Injury Prevention.

THE RISK COMPENSATION THEORY AND BICYCLE HELMETS Link to 2001 article by Adams and Hillman.

EVALUATING THE HEALTH BENEFIT OF BICYCLE HELMET LAWS (pdf) by Piet de Jong, 2009.

THE HEALTH IMPACT OF MANDATORY BICYCLE HELMET LAWS Abstract of 2010 article by Piet de Jong, Macquarie University. PDF can be downloaded for free from this link as well.

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LAW

BIKE-SPECIFIC SECTIONS OF THE UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE

NATIONAL COMMITTEE ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC LAWS AND ORDINANCES

CALIFORNIA VEHICLE CODE (pdf)

COLORADO BICYCLE LAWS See also the exact text of interesting new pro-bike changes signed into law in 2009.

FLORIDA BICYCLE LAWS With editorial comments from FDOT.

IDAHO BICYCLE LAWS With the famous Idaho Stop. Or download pdf. See also THE ORIGINS OF IDAHO'S STOP-AS-YIELD LAW.

ILLINOIS BICYCLE LAWS On City of Chicago bike program site.

IOWA BICYCLE LAWS

BIKE-RELATED LAWS, GENERAL LAWS OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS Compiled by CityofBoston.com.

MICHIGAN BICYCLE AND MOTORCYCLE LAWS 

MONTANA BICYCLE LAWS

NEW YORK STATE BICYCLE LAWS

OHIO BICYCLE LAWS

ATLANTA MUNICIPAL CODE Bike section is Chapter 150, Article V.

BOSTON TRAFFIC CODE (pdf)

CHICAGO BICYCLE LAWS See also CHICAGO BICYCLE SAFETY ORDINANCE (pdf) Passed March '08.

DALLAS MUNICIPAL CODE Bike section is Chapter 9. Check out the mandatory helmet law for adults.

DENVER REVISED MUNICIPAL CODE Bike section is Chapter 54, Title IX.

NEW YORK CITY TRAFFIC CODE (pdf)

PHILADELPHIA TRAFFIC CODE Bike section is Title 12, Chapter 800. Also: BICYCLE REGISTRATION ORDINANCE PROPOSED FOR CITY OF PHILADELPHIA IN NOVEMBER 2009 (pdf).

PHOENIX MUNICIPAL CODE Bike section is Chapter 36, Title IX.

PORTLAND OREGON BICYCLE LAWS Does not include the provision for drivers to yield to cyclists in bike lanes.

SEATTLE BICYCLE LAWS

"ON 'DOORINGS' OF BICYCLISTS ..." Article by Al Baker on New York Times' City Room blog, October 28, 2010, includes some figures on numbers of doorings in New York state, and information on applicable laws.

HIGHWAY CODE FOR ENGLAND, SCOTLAND AND WALES (INCL. LONDON)

DEATH BY CYCLING LAW IN UK (Guardian).2011 proposal follows demonization of "lycra louts" in England.

THE ART OF CYCLINGSTAYING SAFE ON CITY STREETS  2014

The legendary traffic safety manual has been revised, updated and expanded. This book contains the collective street knowledge of the world's most experienced riders, all wrapped in historical context like a spicy truth burrito. Read it and pass it on!

READ MORE ABOUT IT. SHOP FOR IT: AMAZONBARNES N NOBLETATTERED COVERPOWELL'S.

TECH

SHELDON BROWN (1944-2008) He will be missed.

PARKTOOL.COM Detailed repair instructions.

ANALYTIC CYCLING

TIPS ON ADJUSTING RIDING POSITION (pdf) By Steve Hogg, (not Hegg), from Bicycling Australia e-zine.

THE EFFECT OF SEAT POSITION ON THE EFFICIENCY OF BICYCLE PEDALING EFFICIENCY (pdf) 1947 article by Hugh-Jones, Journal of Physiology.

THE EFFICIENCY OF BICYCLE PEDALING AS AFFECTED BY SPEED AND LOAD (pdf) 1929 paper by Sylvia Dickinson. See more articles on pedaling efficiency under PHYSIOLOGY below.

ENERGY COST OF RIDING BICYCLES WITH SHOCK ABSORPTION SYSTEMS ON A FLAT SURFACE Abstract, Nielens and Lejeune, International Journal of Sports Medicine, August 2001.

TIRE ROLLING RESISTANCE TEST RESULTS (pdf)

JOE RIEL'S BRAKING PITCHOVER CALCULATIONS (pdf) Far better than previous efforts which assumed a seated rider, but Riel's formula still doesn't account for rider movement.

"WHAT KEEPS THE BICYCLER UPRIGHT?" Article by Warring,Popular Science Monthly, 1891.

ON THE STABILITY AND CONTROL OF THE BICYCLE by Robin Sharp, Applied Mechanics Reviews, November 2008.

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON HUMAN CONTROL OF A BICYCLE 2009 article by Kooijman, Schwab and Moore.

A REVIEW ON BICYCLE DYNAMICS AND RIDER CONTROL Abstract of paper by Schwab and Meljaard, Vehicle System Dynamics, vol. 51, issue 7, 2013.

THE TRACK OF A BICYCLE BACK TIRE Steven Dunbar, Reiner Bosman and Sander Nooij, DATE? Matrix Riccati equations.

SPEED AND POWER CALCULATOR

CPSC'S REFLECTOR PROJECT (pdf)1995 government analysis of reflector effectiveness.

THE BROWNING AUTOMATIC BICYCLE TRANSMISSION 1995 article by Chester Kyle.

THE COPENHAGEN WHEEL PROJECT Does the extra power provided by the mechanism make up for its extra weight?

ERGONOMIC EVALUATION AND REDESIGN OF CHILDRENS' BICYCLES BASED ON ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA Abstract of paper by Laios and Giannatsis, Applied Ergonomics, May 2010.

BEST BIKE RIDES DENVER AND BOULDER  2013

Road and mountain bike rides, in the same book! Whether you're a 90-year-old beginner or an EPO-banging professional, you'll find plenty of fun in this full-color guide jammed with maps, photos, history and sharp wit. Get lost in this book, not on your ride!

SHOP FOR IT: TATTERED COVERAMAZONBARNES N NOBLE.

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF BICYCLING
 

ASSOCIATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY WITH CANCER INCIDENCE AND SURVIVAL: A POPULATION-BASED STUDY OF MEN (pdf) 2008 paper by Orsini, Mantzoros and Wolk in British Journal of Cancer.

DAILY TOTAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL AND TOTAL CANCER RISK IN MEN AND WOMEN: RESULTS FROM A LARGE-SCALE POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY IN JAPAN Rigorous 2008 study appears in American Journal of Epidemiology, arrives at similar results using a 'relatively lean population.'

HEALTH, FITNESS, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND MORBIDITY OF MIDDLE AGED MALE FACTORY WORKERS (pdf) 1986 paper by Tuxworth, Nevill, White and Jenkins, University of Birmingham. Regular cyclists were the most fit subjects in this robust study.

DO THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF CYCLING OUTWEIGH THE RISKS? Results from Holland, 2010, Environmental Health Perspectives. Nothing surprising in this full article.

HEALTH BENEFITS OF CYCLING TO WORK 2010 article in Norwegian.

EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF A CYCLIST TO PM-10 AND ULTRAFINE PARTICLES Abstract. Berghmans, et al, Science of the Total Environment, February 2009.

EFFECT OF SHOE CLEAT POSITION ON PHYSIOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE OF COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS Abstract of 2009 paper by Paton which finds no benefit in placing cleat under the arch of the foot.

THE EFFECT OF SEAT POSITION ON THE EFFICIENCY OF BICYCLE PEDALING EFFICIENCY (pdf) 1947 article by Hugh-Jones, Journal of Physiology.

A STUDY OF PASSIVE WEIGHT-BEARING LOWER LIMB EXERCISE EFFECTS ON LOCAL MUSCLES AND WHOLE BODY OXIDATIVE METABOLISM: A COMPARISON WITH SIMULATED HORSE RIDING, BICYCLE, AND WALKING EXERCISE 2009 article, Department of Sports Medicine for Health Promotion, Tokyo Medical University.

DETERMINING THE INTENSITY AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE DURING COMMUTER CYCLING (Abstract) 2007 Belgian study, British Journal of Sports Medicine. Another Belgian study: COMMUTER CYCLING: EFFECT ON PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN UNTRAINED MEN AND WOMEN (Abstract) 2009.

ENERGY AND AERODYNAMICS IN BICYCLING Abstract of 1994 article by Kyle in Clinical Sports Medicine.

ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN THE RACE ACROSS AMERICA (RAAM) Abstract of 2010 paper by Hulton et al, International Journal of Sports Medicine. Answer: A lot.

POST-COMPETITION BLOOD LACTATE CONCENTRATIONS IN COMPETITIVE CYCLISTS 1981 article by Burke, Fleck and Dickson, British Journal of Sports Medicine.

GIRO, TOUR AND VUELTA IN THE SAME SEASON (pdf) Study of one hard-working industrialized cyclist, 2001 season.

SINUS NODE DISEASE AND ARRYTHMIAS IN LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP OF FORMER PROFESSIONAL CYCLISTS 2007 article from theEuropean Heart journal used golfers as a control group.

ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN 104 PROFESSIONAL CYCLISTS WITH FOLLOW-UP STUDY Abstract of 1994 article, American Heart Journal.

EXTREME MOUNTAIN BIKE CHALLENGES MAY INDUCE SUB-CLINICAL MYOCARDIAL DAMAGE Abstract of 2006 article by Ortega, et al in The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness.

THE PHYSIOLOGY OF MOUNTAIN BIKING Abstract of 2007 Sports Medicine article by Italian research team.

PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL MOUNTAIN BIKERS AND PROFESSIONAL ROAD CYCLISTS Abstract of 2002 Journal of Sports Science article, Hamilton Lee et al.

THE EFFECT OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE ON GROSS-EFFICIENCY IN CYCLING 2007 article in European Journal of Applied Physiology.

THE INFLUENCE OF BODY MASS IN ENDURANCE BICYCLING Abstract of 1994 article by DP Swain. The abstract alone explains a great deal about the sport of bicycling.

MODELS TO EXPLAIN FATIGUE DURING PROLONGED ENDURANCE CYCLING Abstract, 2005 article by Abbiss and Laursen in Sports Medicine. Learn about the 'Central Governor.'

LUNG DENSITY IS NOT ALTERED FOLLOWING INTENSE NORMOBARIC HYPOXIC INTERVAL TRAINING IN COMPETITIVE FEMALE CYCLISTS Link to full text. Journal of Applied Physiology, June 14, 2007.

THE COMPARISON OF MAXIMAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION BETWEEN SEATED AND STANDING LEG CYCLE ERGOMETRY Article by Bosak, Green, Crews and Deere in The Sport Journal.

MUSCULAR ACTIVITY DURING UPHILL CYCLING: EFFECT OF SLOPE, POSTURE, HAND GRIP POSITION AND CONSTRAINED BICYCLE LATERAL SWAYS Abstract of 2008 study by Duc, Bertucci, Pernin and Grappe.

ON THE BIOMECHANICS OF CYCLING: A STUDY OF JOINT AND MUSCLE LOAD DURING EXERCISE ON THE BICYCLE ERGOMETER Abstract of 1986 article by Ericson, Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitory Medicine.

LOWER EXTREMITY OVERUSE IN BICYCLING Abstract of 1994 article by Holmes, Pruitt and Whalen (Western Ortho., Denver), Clinical Sports Medicine.

AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF OVERUSE INJURIES AMONG RECREATIONAL CYCLISTS Abstract, Wilber et al, International Journal of Sports Medicine, 1995. Based on mail-in questionnaire.

RESPIRATORY MECHANICS DURING EXERCISE IN ENDURANCE-TRAINED MEN AND WOMEN 2007, The Journal of Physiology.

THE RELATION OF OXYGEN INTAKE AND SPEED IN COMPETITION CYCLING AND COMPARATIVE OBSERVATIONS ON THE BICYCLE ERGOMETER (pdf) 1974 article by Pugh,Journal of Physiology.

GLUCOSE METABOLISM DURING LEG EXERCISE IN MAN Abstract of 1971 article by Wahren, Felig, Ahlborg and Jorfeldt.

BICYCLE RIDING, PERINEAL TRAUMA, AND ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION: DATA AND SOLUTIONS (Abstract) 2007 article by Goldstein, Lurie and Lubisich.

THE VICIOUS CYCLING: BICYCLING RELATED UROGENITAL DISORDERS (Abstract) 2004 study, Israel.

THE EFFICIENCY OF BICYCLE PEDALING AS AFFECTED BY SPEED AND LOAD (pdf) 1929 paper by Sylvia Dickinson.

THE EFFICIENCY OF BICYCLE PEDALING IN THE TRAINED SUBJECT (pdf) 1934 article by Garry and Wishart, Jounal of Physiology.

ANALGESIA FOLLOWING EXERCISE: A REVIEW (pdf) Kolten, Sports Medicine, February 2000.

THE VISUAL CONTROL OF BICYCLE STEERING Abstract of 2013 study by Vansteenkiste, et al which measured the effect of speed and path width on 'gaze behavior' and visual fixations.

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ADVOCACY, SOCIOLOGY & CULTURE

[One person's advocacy is another's ... something else.]

LEAGUE OF AMERICAN BICYCLISTS (LAB)

KEN KIFER'S BIKE PAGES Site still maintained after Kifer's tragic death by drunk driver.

BICYCLESAFE.COM Michael Bluejay's "How Not to Get Hit by Cars."

CAN-BIKE Canadian pedagogy.

JOHN PUCHER Links to recent articles by Rutgers U. professor who advocates for Euro-style facilities in Norh America.

JOHN S. ALLEN

JOHN FORESTER The Godfather of 'Vehicular Cycling.'

BICYCLE TRANSPORTATION: A HANDBOOK FOR CYCLING TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERS Search through Forester's (other) book on Google books, keep the salt handy.

JOHN FORESTER AT THE PRESERVING THE AMERICAN DREAM CONFERENCE (pdf) Talk presented in 2005. Are you an 'anti-motoring cyclist?'

ENCOURAGING CYCLING WITH A PILOT CYCLING PROFICIENCY TRAINING PROGRAM Abstract of article about program in Sydney, Australia.

PROMOTING WALKING AND CYCLING AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO USING CARS: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW (pdf) What gets people out of their cars and onto bicycles? 2004 article.

INFRASTRUCTURE, PROGRAMS AND POLICIES TO INCREASE BICYCLING: AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW (pdf) 2009 paper by Pucher, Dill and Handy finds positive role for public policy.

BICYCLE POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN PRINCIPALS: CONTINUOUS AND INTEGRAL (pdf). Fietsberaad publication number 7, 2010.

NYC MAYOR"S OFFICE MEMO IN SUPPORT OF BIKE LANES (pdf) March 2011. See also: Lawsuit Seeks to Erase Brooklyn Bike Lane (NYT).

CYCLING FOR EVERYONE: THE IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL JUSTICE IN CYCLING POLICY (pdf) 2009 article by Euro-philes Pucher and Buehler. See more of Pucher's recent publications HERE.

BICYCLING IN MUENSTER, GERMANY A celebration of German bike planning.

QUANTIFYING CYCLING'S CO2 SAVINGS (pdf) Report by European Cyclists' Federation (ECF), 2011.

CYCLISTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD POLICIES ENCOURAGING BICYCLE TRAVEL Link to 2009 article based on a survey of recreational cyclists in New Zealand.

EVALUATION OF A CYCLING SKILLS TRAINING PROGRAM FOR YOUNG CHILDREN (pdf) 1999 article by Colleen Cooper.

SAFE ROUTES TO SCHOOL

"PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN CYCLING TO LESSONS DOUBLES IN BIKE IT SCHOOLS" Article by Simon MacMichael trumpets success of British SUSTRANS program in promoting cycling to school, June 2010.

THE DILEMMAS OF BICYCLE PLANNING 1999 paper by Paul Schimek.

FOUR TYPES OF BICYCLISTS (pdf) Non-scientific classification by Portland planner Roger Geller.

'BIKETIVISM' AND TECHNOLOGY: HISTORICAL REFLECTIONS AND APPROPRIATIONS Abstract of 2005 article by Zack Furness in the journal Social Epistemology.

SPECIAL BICYCLING SAFETY EDITION OF THE JOURNAL OF THE AUSTRALASIAN COLLEGE OF ROAD SCIENCE (pdf) August 2010. Includes articles about bike advocacy in Australia.

THE ROOTS OF DRIVER BEHAVIOR TOWARD CYCLISTS Abstract of paper by Reid and Basford, TRL Ltd. UK, 2002 European Transportation Conference.

"HANG THE CYCLISTS!" YouTube video of bike lane protest and controversy in Budapest.

PJ O'ROURKE ON THE SCOURGE OF BIKE LANES 2011 humor attack piece in Wall Street Journal.

COMMUTERORLANDO'S PASSING MARGIN CHART Short experiment presented as evidence of lane-taking success.

JEFFREY HILES' ESSAY "LISTENING TO BIKE LANES"

28 REASONS TO BIKE Advocacy from someone at University of Central Florida.

REFORMING BICYCLE TRAFFIC LAWS Feisty.

LAB REFORM League-critical splinter group.

INTERNATIONAL MOUNTAIN BIKE ASSOCIATION

BIKES BELONG COALITION

BICYCLE COLORADO

BIKE DELAWARE

BIKE IOWA 

IOWA BICYCLE COALITION

BIKE MARYLAND

SAN FRANCISCO BICYCLE COALITION

BIKE PORTLAND

GREATER PHILADELPHIA BICYCLE COALITION

BICYCLE TRANSPORTATION ALLIANCE

CYCLISTS AGAINST RECKLESS DRIVERS FOUNDATION

TRANSPORTATION ALTERNATIVES NYC

BIKEDENVER

BICYCLEAUSTIN More Bluejay at work.

STREETSBLOG NEW YORK CITY / STREETSBLOG SAN FRANCISCO / STREETSBLOG L.A.

CHICAGOLAND BICYCLE FEDERATION

CITY OF CHICAGO BICYCLE PLAN (pdf)

THE ATLANTA BICYCLE PROGRAM

BIKESEATTLE

AUSTRALIAN BICYCLE COUNCIL

CYCLE-LICIOUS If it happens in the bike world, Fritz is on it.

GASFREECOMMUTE.COM

BEST BIKE RIDES DENVER AND BOULDER  2013

Road and mountain bike rides, in the same book! Whether you're a 90-year-old beginner or an EPO-banging professional, you'll find plenty of fun in this full-color guide jammed with maps, photos, history and sharp wit. Get lost in this book, not on your ride!

SHOP FOR IT: TATTERED COVERAMAZONBARNES N NOBLE.

INDUSTRIALIZED CYCLING

"He cuts through traffic like a ginsu knife of hope. And, he's addicted to meth."

THE MESSENGER INSTITUTE FOR MEDIA ACCURACY

THE BICYCLE MESSENGER EMERGENCY FUND

INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF BICYCLE MESSENGER ASSOCIATIONS

IFBMA INTERNATIONAL CONTACTS and OTHER RESOURCES PAGE

MILEHIGHMESS Mostly inactive home base for Denver couriers. Also has Rich Ryon's popular video 'Mountain Therapy for Messengers.'

CMWC 08 TORONTO

MOVING TARGET From London veteran Bill Chidley. Includes trucker's description of blind spots and visibility problems.

MESSENGERS' ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION Abstract of 2006 study of Swedish riders.

APPROPRIATING THE CITY: SPACE, THEORY, AND BIKE MESSENGERS (pdf) by Jeffrey Kidder, 2008.

BIKE MESSENGERS AND THE REALLY REAL: EFFERVESCENCE, REFLEXIVITY, AND POSTMODERN IDENTITY Abstract of 2006 article in Symbolic Interaction.

"IT'S THE JOB THAT I LOVE": BIKE MESSENGERS AND EDGEWORK Abstract of Jeffrey Kidder article, Sociological Forum, March 2006.

Search  THE INDUSTRIALIZED CYCLIST NOTE PAD  for juicy chunks of information related to transportation, energy, war, bicycling, Mayans, helicopters, jackups and Ku-Maloob-Zaap.